Ball tie rod

Designing a forge involves several key considerations, including the type of fuel you’ll use, the size of the forge, the materials you’ll use for the forge, and the features you’ll need for your particular project.

Forge Design Steps

Cam forging

Determine the type of fuel you’ll use

Forges can be fueled by a variety of sources, including coal, charcoal, propane, and natural gas. The type of fuel you choose will impact the design of your forge, as each fuel source requires different equipment and handling.

Determine the size of your forge

The size of your forge will depend on the size of the items you’ll be forging. If you plan to forge small items, you’ll need a smaller forge, while larger items will require a larger forge.

Choose your materials

The materials you choose for your forge will depend on your budget and the type of fuel you’ll be using. For example, if you’re using coal or charcoal, you’ll need a firepot that can withstand high temperatures. If you’re using propane or natural gas, you’ll need a burner made of materials that won’t corrode.

Steering system forgings

Decide on the features you’ll need

Depending on your project, you may need additional features on your forge, such as an adjustable air supply to control the temperature or a forge hood to remove smoke and fumes.

Sketch your design

Once you’ve determined the key elements of your forge, sketch out your design. Make sure to include dimensions and materials.

Fast transmission gear fork

Build your forge

With your design in hand, you can begin building your forge. Make sure to follow safety guidelines and use appropriate protective gear, such as gloves, eye protection, and a respirator if necessary.

Test your forge

Once your forge is built, test it out to make sure it’s working properly. Make adjustments as needed.

Remember, designing and building a forge requires skill and knowledge, so if you’re new to forging, consider working with an experienced blacksmith or taking a class to learn the basics.

Hose connector

Open die forging, also known as smith forging or blacksmith forging, is a forging process where the metal is deformed between two flat or slightly curved dies that do not completely enclose the workpiece. The process involves the following steps:

Preparing the workpiece: The workpiece is heated to a temperature above its recrystallization temperature, which allows it to become malleable and easier to shape.

Master axis

Placing the workpiece on the anvil: The heated workpiece is placed on the anvil or the bottom die of the forging press.

Shaping the workpiece: The top die of the forging press is brought down onto the workpiece to shape it. The operator may also use hand tools, such as hammers or tongs, to shape the workpiece.

Reheating the workpiece: The workpiece may need to be reheated periodically to maintain its malleability and prevent cracking.

Locomotive forgings

Repeating the process: The shaping process is repeated until the desired shape and dimensions are achieved.

Finishing the workpiece: Once the desired shape is achieved, the workpiece is cooled and any excess material is removed using machining, grinding, or other finishing processes.

Open die forging is used to create a wide range of products, including large components for machinery, aircraft and aerospace components, and tool and die components. It is a flexible process that can produce unique, custom shapes and sizes with a high degree of precision and strength.

Ring forgings

Ring forgings are metal components that are produced through the process of forging, in which a heated metal billet is hammered or pressed into a desired shape. Ring forgings are specifically shaped to form circular rings that are used in a variety of applications, including aerospace, power generation, oil and gas, and defense industries.

Ring forgings are typically made from steel or other high-strength alloys, which allows them to withstand high temperatures, pressures, and loads. The forging process also creates a grain structure in the metal that is oriented in the direction of the stresses that the component will be subjected to, which helps to improve its strength and resistance to fatigue.

There are several methods used to produce ring forgings, including open die forging, closed die forging, and seamless rolled ring forging. Open die forging involves shaping the metal billet between two flat dies, while closed die forging uses shaped dies to produce a more precise shape. Seamless rolled ring forging involves shaping the metal billet into a ring shape using rollers, which produces a smooth surface and reduces the need for additional machining.

Ring forgings

The production process for ring forgings involves several steps, including:

Billet preparation: The first step in the process is to prepare the metal billet that will be used to create the ring forging. The billet is typically made from steel or other high-strength alloys, and is heated to a specific temperature to make it more malleable and easier to shape.

Forming: The billet is then shaped into a ring shape using one of several forging methods. Open die forging involves shaping the billet between two flat dies, while closed die forging uses shaped dies to produce a more precise shape. Seamless rolled ring forging involves shaping the billet into a ring shape using rollers.

Rough machining: After the ring forging is formed, it is typically subjected to rough machining to remove any excess material and bring it closer to its final shape.

Ring forgings

Heat treatment: The ring forging is then subjected to a heat treatment process, which helps to improve its strength and durability. This process typically involves heating the forging to a specific temperature and then cooling it at a controlled rate to achieve the desired properties.

Final machining: Once the heat treatment process is complete, the ring forging is subjected to final machining to achieve its final dimensions and surface finish.

Inspection and testing: The final step in the process is to inspect and test the ring forging to ensure that it meets the required specifications and quality standards. This typically involves using non-destructive testing methods such as ultrasonic or magnetic particle inspection to detect any defects or irregularities in the material.

Overall, the production process for ring forgings is complex and requires specialized equipment and expertise. However, the resulting components are known for their high strength, durability, and reliability, and are used in a variety of applications across many industries.

Harvester forgings

Agricultural machinery parts forgings are components used in agricultural machinery that are produced through the forging process. Forging is a manufacturing process in which metal is shaped by applying compressive forces using a hammer or press.

Some common agricultural machinery parts that are produced through forgings include:

Other agricultural machinery forgings


Axles are an important component of agricultural machinery, and they are often produced through forging.


Gears are used to transmit power from the engine to the wheels or other components of the machinery. Forged gears are often stronger and more durable than those produced through other manufacturing methods.


Crankshafts are used to convert reciprocating motion into rotational motion in the engine of the machinery. Forged crankshafts are often preferred due to their strength and durability.

Forged mining machinery support base

Connecting rods

Connecting rods are used to connect the piston to the crankshaft in the engine. Forged connecting rods are often used in high-performance engines due to their strength and ability to withstand high loads.


Shafts are used to transmit power between components of the machinery. Forged shafts are often preferred due to their strength and durability.


Housings are used to protect the internal components of the machinery. Forged housings are often stronger and more durable than those produced through other manufacturing methods.

Overall, forgings are a popular manufacturing method for agricultural machinery parts due to their strength, durability, and ability to withstand high loads. By producing components through forgings, manufacturers can ensure that their agricultural machinery is reliable and can withstand the harsh conditions of agricultural work.

Hose connector

Hot forging is a metalworking process that involves heating a metal above its recrystallization temperature and then shaping it through compressive force. This process is commonly used in a wide range of industries to create various components and parts. Here are some of the application fields of hot forging:

Master axis

Automotive: Hot forging is widely used in the automotive industry to produce components such as crankshafts, connecting rods, and gears. These parts are essential for the proper functioning of engines and other critical systems in vehicles.

1. Aerospace: Hot forging is also used in the aerospace industry to produce various parts such as turbine blades, landing gear components, and structural parts for aircraft.

2. Industrial machinery: Hot forging is used in the production of various components for industrial machinery such as hydraulic cylinders, gear blanks, and crankshafts.

Axle forgings

3. Construction: Hot forging is used in the construction industry to produce components such as bolts, nuts, and other fasteners that are essential for building structures.

4. Oil and gas: Hot forging is used in the oil and gas industry to produce various components such as valves, flanges, and piping fittings that are used in pipelines, refineries, and other facilities.

5. Military and defense: Hot forging is also used in the military and defense industries to produce components such as missile and bomb casings, tank parts, and other critical components.

In summary, hot forging is a widely used metalworking process that is used in a variety of industries to produce various components and parts. It is commonly used in the automotive, aerospace, industrial machinery, construction, oil and gas, and military and defense industries, among others. The high strength, durability, and precision of hot forged parts make them essential for many critical applications.


When choosing a forging manufacturer, it is important to consider several key factors to ensure that you select a reputable and capable company that can meet your needs. Here are some key factors to consider:

Experience and Expertise: Look for a forging manufacturer with a proven track record of delivering high-quality forgings and experience in the industry. Consider their expertise in the specific type of forging you require and ask about their history of producing similar products.

Agricultural machinery lifting arm

Quality Control: A manufacturer with a strong commitment to quality control is important in ensuring the forgings you receive meet your specifications and requirements. Ask about their quality control processes, including material inspection and testing, and review their quality control certificates, such as ISO 9001.

Capabilities: Consider the manufacturer’s capabilities, including the types of forging processes they offer, the size of forgings they can produce, and the materials they can work with. A manufacturer with a range of capabilities is more likely to be able to meet your needs.

Equipment and Technology: Ask about the manufacturer’s equipment and technology, and whether they have the latest technology to ensure high-quality, efficient production.

Die forging rail press

Lead Time and Delivery: Consider the manufacturer’s lead time and delivery schedule, and whether they can meet your required delivery timeline. A manufacturer that can offer quick turnaround times can be a major advantage.

Cost: Price is an important factor to consider, but it should not be the only factor. It is important to balance cost with quality and reliability, and to select a manufacturer that offers a competitive price while still meeting your needs and requirements.

Hub sleeve

Reputation and Reliability: Research the manufacturer’s reputation, including customer reviews and feedback, to get a better understanding of their reliability and customer satisfaction. You can also ask for references and talk to other companies that have used their services.

In conclusion, choosing the right forging manufacturer is important to ensure that you receive high-quality forgings that meet your needs and requirements. Consider the above factors to make an informed decision and select a manufacturer that will provide you with the best value for your investment.

Die forging rail press

Closed die forging is a metal forming process in which a billet or preform is placed between two dies, which are then brought together under high pressure to shape the material into the desired form. The dies are typically made of hardened steel and are machined to have a precise shape, so that the finished product has a high degree of accuracy and repeatability. The term “closed die” refers to the fact that the billet is fully enclosed within the dies and cannot move or escape during the forging process.


The process of closed die forging typically involves several stages, including preheating the billet to a temperature that is suitable for forging, placing the billet in the dies, and applying pressure to shape the billet. The pressure is typically applied using a forging press or hammer, and the final shape of the product is determined by the shape of the dies.

Closed die forging offers several advantages over other metal forming processes, including higher strength and toughness, improved dimensional accuracy, and the ability to produce complex shapes. It is commonly used in the manufacture of components for various industries, such as automotive, aerospace, and construction.

Die forging rail press

Closed die forging is commonly used in the manufacture of a wide range of components, including gears, shafts, valves, and other components for various industries, such as automotive, aerospace, and construction. The process offers several advantages over other metal forming processes, including higher strength and toughness, improved dimensional accuracy, and the ability to produce complex shapes. Additionally, closed die forging can be used to produce parts with a high degree of detail, such as small ribs or intricate patterns.

Forged valve bracket

Multi-directional die forging is a precision forging technology that performs split-die forging on a multi-directional die forging hydraulic press, and its deformation is mainly extrusion. During multi-directional die forging, two or more punches (or punch cores) pressurize the bad material simultaneously or sequentially from different directions for extrusion or upsetting.

Compared with ordinary die forging and split die forging, multi-directional die forging has the characteristics of simple structure and long service life. Forgings such as class, cylindrical parts, large valve bodies, pipe joints, aircraft landing gear, engine casings, disc shaft assemblies, etc. have begun to be produced by multi-directional die forging technology. Combined with the application of multi-directional die forging, we have made a detailed summary of the process characteristics of multi-directional die forging, let’s understand it together.

Other agricultural machinery forgings

Multi-directional die forging process characteristics

1. The material utilization rate is high. Compared with the open die forging, there is no waste of flash material. The shape of the forging can be designed to be hollow, and the forging slope of the punching hole can be canceled or reduced, thereby saving 30%-50% of metal.

2. The performance of the forging is good. Since the shape of most forgings is formed by die forging, the fiber structure is distributed along the contour of the forging, so the mechanical properties of the forging are good, and the general strength can be increased by more than 30%.

3. It is suitable for the forming of high alloy steel and special alloy. Because the blank is deformed under three-dimensional compressive stress during forging, its process plasticity is improved, which greatly facilitates the forming of high alloy and special alloy materials with poor plasticity and narrow forging temperature range. take shape.


4. High productivity. Compared with ordinary die forging, the number of working steps can generally be reduced by 50%, so the forging time is greatly reduced and the production efficiency is greatly improved.

5. Wide applicability, can be used for hollow frames of various alloys, solid and hollow branch forgings, fork forgings, cylindrical parts, various valve bodies, pipe joints and shaft forgings.

Multi-directional die forging belongs to closed die forging, and the forgings have no flash, and more internal shapes of forgings can be obtained by forging. Therefore, it is required to have high blanking precision, and at the same time, it is required to use less and no oxidation heating. In addition, multi-directional die forging requires a special multi-directional die forging hydraulic press with good rigidity and high precision or a special die forging device with complex structure attached to the general equipment.

Compressor camshaft

Shaft forgings should choose different materials and adopt different heat treatment specifications (such as quenching and tempering, normalizing, quenching, etc.) according to different working conditions and use requirements, in order to obtain certain strength, toughness and wear resistance.

45 steel is a commonly used material for shaft forgings. It is cheap and can obtain better cutting performance after quenching and tempering (or normalizing), and can obtain comprehensive mechanical properties such as higher strength and toughness. The surface hardness after quenching can be improved. Up to 45~52HRC.

Alloy structural steel such as 40Cr is suitable for shaft forgings with medium precision and high rotational speed. This kind of steel has good comprehensive mechanical properties after quenching and tempering.

Bearing steel GCr15 and spring steel 65Mn, after quenching and tempering and surface high-frequency quenching. The surface hardness can reach 50~58HRC and has high fatigue resistance and good wear resistance, and can manufacture high-precision shafts.

Input shaft

38CrMoAIA nitrided steel can be used for the main shaft of precision machine tools (such as the grinding wheel shaft of grinding machine and the main shaft of coordinate boring machine). After quenching and tempering and surface nitriding, this kind of steel can not only obtain high surface hardness, but also maintain a soft core, so it has good impact resistance and toughness. Compared with carburizing and quenching steel, it has the characteristics of small heat treatment deformation and higher hardness.

Shaft forgings are one of the typical forgings often encountered in machines. It is mainly used to support transmission parts, transmit torque and bear load. Shaft forgings are rotating body forgings whose length is greater than the diameter and are generally composed of outer cylindrical surfaces, conical surfaces, inner holes, threads and corresponding end surfaces of concentric shafts. According to different structural shapes, shaft forgings can be divided into optical shafts, stepped shafts, hollow shafts and crankshafts. A shaft with an aspect ratio of less than 5 is called a short shaft, and one with an aspect ratio greater than 20 is called a slender shaft, and most shafts are in between.

The shaft is supported by bearings, and the shaft section that fits with the bearing is called the journal. The journal is the assembly benchmark of the shaft. Their accuracy and surface quality are generally required to be high. The technical requirements are generally formulated according to the main function and working conditions of the shaft. Usually, there are the following items:

Geometric shape accuracy: The geometric shape accuracy of shaft forgings mainly refers to the roundness and cylindricity of the journal, outer tapered surface, Morse taper hole, etc., and its tolerance should generally be limited within the dimensional tolerance range. For inner and outer circular surfaces with high precision requirements, the allowable deviation should be marked on the drawing.

Dimensional accuracy: In order to determine the position of the shaft, the journal that acts as a support usually requires high dimensional accuracy (IT5~IT7). The dimensional accuracy of the journal of the assembled transmission parts is generally lower (IT6~IT9).

Mutual position accuracy: The position accuracy requirements of shaft forgings are mainly determined by the position and function of the shaft in the machine. Generally, the coaxiality requirements of the shaft journal for assembling the transmission part to the supporting shaft journal should be guaranteed, otherwise the transmission accuracy of the transmission part (gear, etc.) will be affected and noise will be generated. For ordinary precision shafts, the radial runout of the matching shaft section to the supporting journal is generally 0.01~0.03mm, and for high-precision shafts (such as spindles), it is usually 0.001~0.005mm.

Shaft forgings can be in the form of bars, forgings and other rough forms according to the use requirements, production type, equipment conditions and structure. For shafts with little difference in outer diameter, bar is generally the main material; for stepped shafts or important shafts with large difference in outer diameter, forgings are often used, which not only saves materials but also reduces the workload of machining. Improve mechanical properties.

According to the different production scales, there are two forging methods for blanks: free forging and die forging. Free forging is mostly used in small and medium batch production, and die forging is used in mass production.

Precision forged gear

Carburized steel 20CrMnTi forgings are air-cooled to room temperature after forging to obtain a mixed structure composed of ferrite, pearlite, Widmansite and bainite. After heating to 930°C for carburizing and cooling to 850°C for quenching, coarse austenites still appear. Body grains, showing obvious tissue heredity. If after forging, after heat treatment, a mixed structure of ferrite and pearlite is obtained, after carburizing and quenching, the structure is obviously refined, and there is no organization heredity, which is the significance of heat treatment after forging. The main purposes of heat treatment for small gear forgings are:

(1) Eliminate forging stress.

(2) Obtain a relatively uniform metallographic structure and improve cutting performance.

(3) Reduce the deformation of the gear after carburizing and quenching.


1. Isothermal annealing

The forging material is 20CrMnTi, and the equipment is an isothermal annealing continuous furnace, which consists of a high temperature zone, a rapid cooling zone and an isothermal zone.
The isothermal annealing process is an advanced high-temperature heating zone for forgings. It is heated from room temperature to 940°C and held for a period of time to make it fully austenitized. Then it enters the rapid cooling zone and is rapidly cooled from 950°C to 650°C within 5~10 minutes. Make the forgings quickly enter the correct phase transformation range, and then keep warm at 650°C to make the forgings fully phase-transform to ferrite + pearlite structure, and send them out of the furnace to air cool to room temperature.

It should be noted that due to the different sizes of forgings, the isothermal annealing process curve should be adjusted according to the actual situation of the production site. The principle is to ensure that the metallographic structure of forgings is 1~3, and the surface hardness is preferably controlled at 160~210HBW. After testing, this production process is also suitable for the annealing of small shaft forgings, and the production capacity of the equipment is 600kg/h.

2. Waste heat annealing

The forging material is 20CrMnTi, and the equipment is a mesh belt waste heat annealing furnace, which is composed of a heating furnace and a rapid cooling chamber. The preheating annealing process is that after the forging is formed, it is directly sent into the heating furnace, kept at 650°C for 45 minutes, and then enters the rapid cooling room, and is cooled to below 70°C within 20 minutes.

When annealing with residual heat of forgings, the key point is to grasp the temperature of forgings entering the furnace and the holding time in the furnace. After field tests, it is found that the temperature of general forgings entering the furnace should be controlled above 800°C. At this time, the metallographic phase and hardness after annealing are most suitable; Forgings below 800℃ are likely to have unqualified microstructure and hardness after annealing with residual heat, so strict attention should be paid to them. The holding time and temperature cannot be generalized, and should be adjusted appropriately according to the size and thickness of the forging.

3. Comparison of isothermal annealing and waste heat annealing


(1) Isothermal annealing process


a. The process stability is high, and the dispersion of forging hardness can be controlled within 20HBW/batch. The whole annealing process is easy to control, and the metallographic structure and surface hardness of the forgings after annealing can meet the requirements, and it is also the most widely used heat treatment method for forgings at present.

b. Because it is independent from the forging production line and does not interact with other forging equipment’s mobility, it will neither stop the furnace due to the failure of a certain equipment, nor stop the forging production line due to the abnormality of the isothermal annealing line.


a. After the forging is completely cooled, reheat it to about 940°C, which will cause energy waste.

b. The isothermal annealing line cannot be incorporated into the forging production line to realize the “one-flow” forging production mode.

Therefore, it is necessary to set up a special store for normalizing goods, and wait for the amount of forgings to meet the production capacity of the isothermal annealing equipment before they are put into the furnace. Such an intermediate goods store will occupy a large amount of site resources and current assets, which does not meet the “0” intermediate storage in the Toyota production method. thought of.

Precision forged gear

(2) Waste heat annealing process


a. Energy saving and environmental protection are in line with the low-carbon economy advocated by our country. It uses the waste heat of forgings, saves the heating process, and its energy consumption can be reduced to 50% of that of general isothermal annealing.

b. Combined with the forging production line, it saves the site resources and working capital occupied by the warehouse in the middle.


a. Although the residual heat annealing process has been proven to be reliable and has been widely used in production, due to the different forging equipment and the different operating speeds of forging operators, it is relatively difficult to control the furnace entering temperature, which is easy to cause tissue damage. Unqualified hardness.

b. It must follow each forging production line and interact with the mobility of other forging equipment, that is to say, any failure of the waste heat annealing furnace or any equipment of this forging production line will directly cause the entire production line to stop production.

c. Because the heating and cooling process of the annealing furnace is time-consuming and power-consuming, the forging production line matched with the waste heat annealing is preferably a saturated production line with three shifts, and at least two shifts must be ensured. Otherwise, the production is 8 hours and the empty furnace is running for 16 hours. of.

The above is the relevant introduction about the annealing heat treatment process of small gear forgings. You can comprehensively measure the quality, cost, delivery time, site and other factors of actual production, and choose a suitable forging annealing process.