The forging products of the forging factory are plastically deformed by forging processing. The forging process is a processing method for the blanks or parts that use the external force to plastically deform the forging raw materials and obtain the size, shape and performance required for the forgings. Through forging processing can eliminate defects such as as-cast looseness caused by metal in the smelting process, optimize the microstructure, and at the same time greatly enhance the performance of forgings in use due to the preservation of the complete metal forging flow line.
Forging is one of the main methods for the production of blanks and parts in mechanical manufacturing. It is often divided into free forging and die forging. Compared with other processing methods, forging processing has the following characteristics:
1. Improve the internal structure of forgings and improve mechanical properties. After the forging blank is forged, its structure and properties are improved and improved. Forging processing can eliminate defects such as pores, shrinkage cavities and dendrites in the metal ingot, and can be coarsened due to plastic deformation and recrystallization of the metal. The grain is refined to obtain a dense metal structure, thereby improving the mechanical properties of the forging. In the design of the part, if the direction of the force of the part and the direction of the fiber structure are correctly selected, the impact resistance of the forging can be improved.
2. The utilization rate of materials is high. Metal plastic forming is mainly rearranged by the relative position of the metal body structure without the need to cut the metal.
3. Higher productivity. Forging processing is generally carried out by using a press and a forging hammer.
4. The accuracy of blanks or forgings is high. With advanced technology and equipment, it can achieve less or no cutting.
5. The metal material used for forging should have good plasticity so that it can be plastically deformed without breaking under the action of external force. Among the commonly used metal materials, cast iron is a brittle material with poor plasticity and cannot be used for forging. Copper, aluminum and alloys thereof in steel and non-ferrous metals can be processed under cold or hot conditions.
6. It is not suitable for forming forgings with complex shapes. Forging processing is formed in the solid state. Compared with casting, the flow of metal is limited, and it is generally required to adopt heating and other technological measures. It is difficult to manufacture parts or blanks with complex shapes, especially those with complex internal cavities.
Since forging has the above characteristics, important parts subjected to impact or alternating stress (such as transmission spindle, ring gear, connecting rod, track wheel, etc.) should be processed by forging blanks, so forging processing in machinery manufacturing, mining, light industry Heavy industry and other industries have been widely used.
Forging is one of many materials processing methods.
Forging is generally a volume forming process in which a machine part or a blank close to the part size is obtained by transferring and distributing the metal volume. The forged product is called a forging. Forging is mostly carried out under heating. The metal material is formed into a shape by forging, and the desired shape and size can be obtained, and the internal structure thereof can be remarkably improved, and the use performance is improved. Therefore, various parts or components that are subjected to large and complex loads are generally produced by a forging method.
Forging is usually divided into two categories: free forging and die forging.
Free forging is generally performed on free forging equipment using a simple tool to forge metal ingots or blocks into specific shapes and sizes. Free forging is mainly used for single-piece and small-volume production. As the demand for batches increases, the tools used are becoming more complex, resulting in tire die forging. Forging workshops of various types of mechanical repairing factories are mostly produced by free forging and tire die forging. Large forgings (such as large steam turbine rotors and turbines, giant wheels and aircraft engine crankshafts) required to manufacture critical load-bearing parts in heavy-duty machines also require free forging on large hydraulic presses.
Die forging is a forging method suitable for mass production of forgings. In the case of die forging, a forging die having a cavity (mold) having the same or similar shape as the forging is used, the forging die is mounted on the forging machine, the metal blank is placed in the die of the forging die, and the forging machine is passed. The forging die applies a load to the blank to plastically deform the blank, and the deformation flow is controlled by the die space. Die forging is also often introduced into a variety of volume forming methods for the production of forgings, such as extrusion, roll forging, cross rolling, etc. can be included in the scope of die forging.
In addition to high productivity, die forging also has the advantages of accurate shape and size of forgings, high material utilization, more reasonable streamline distribution, high service life of parts, and easy production and operation.
The forging materials are mainly carbon steel and alloy steel of various compositions, followed by aluminum, magnesium, copper, titanium and the like and alloys thereof. The raw state of the material is bar, ingot, metal powder and liquid metal. The ratio of the cross-sectional area of the metal before deformation to the cross-sectional area after deformation is called the forging ratio. Correct selection of forging ratio, reasonable heating temperature and holding time, reasonable initial forging temperature and final forging temperature, reasonable deformation and deformation speed have a great relationship to improve product quality and reduce cost.
Conventional small and medium forged materials use round or square bars as blanks. The grain structure and mechanical properties of the bar are uniform and good, the shape and size are accurate, and the surface quality is good, which is convenient for mass production. As long as the heating temperature and deformation conditions are properly controlled, high-quality forgings can be forged without requiring large forging deformation.
Ingots are only used for large forgings. The ingot is an as-cast structure with large columnar crystals and a loose center. Therefore, it is necessary to break the columnar crystal into fine crystal grains by large plastic deformation, and loosely compact, in order to obtain excellent metal structure and mechanical properties.
The powder metallurgy preform which is pressed and sintered can be made into a powder forging by hot forging without flashing. Forging powder is close to the density of general die forgings, has good mechanical properties, and has high precision, which can reduce subsequent cutting. The powder forgings have a uniform internal structure and are not segregated and can be used to manufacture workpieces such as small gears. However, the price of powder is much higher than the price of ordinary bars, and its application in production is limited.
By applying static pressure to the liquid metal poured in the mold to solidify, crystallize, flow, plastically deform and form under pressure, a die forging of desired shape and performance can be obtained. Liquid metal die forging is a forming method between die casting and die forging, and is particularly suitable for complex thin-walled parts which are difficult to form by general die forging.
Forging materials in addition to the usual materials, such as various components of carbon steel and alloy steel, followed by aluminum, magnesium, copper, titanium and other alloys, iron-based superalloys, nickel-based superalloys, cobalt-based superalloys The deformed alloys are also finished by forging or rolling, except that the alloys are relatively narrow in plasticity, so the forging difficulty is relatively large, and the heating temperature, opening and forging temperature and final forging temperature of different materials have strict requirements.
Effectively handle customer-related processes to ensure customer satisfaction.
- Scope of application
This procedure is applicable to the determination, review and change control of requirements related to auto parts business.
- Duties and responsibilities
3.1 the sales department and customer representatives are responsible for the centralized management of customer-related processes;
3.2 relevant departments shall cooperate with the implementation.
- Work procedures
4.0 process input: customer requirements; Market information; Sales plan; Laws and regulations.
4.1 determination of requirements related to products
The sales department and the customer representative are responsible for identifying customer requirements related to the product, for oral or telephone orders, fill in the oral/telephone order record form, sign a written contract or record the product requirements, including:
- A) customer’s express requirements, including product quality requirements, delivery, support services (such as transportation, etc.), price, etc.;
- B) service requirements that are not specified by the customer but are necessary for the intended or specified use;
- C) statutory and regulatory requirements relating to the product and applicable government, safety and environmental regulations, including the acquisition, storage, handling, recycling, destruction or eventual abandonment of materials;
- D) other commitments made by the company, etc.;
- E) special features specified by customers. The company shall pay special attention to the special performance specified by the customer. The company meets the requirements of customers in terms of special features, documentation and control. If customers provide symbols for special features, the company shall adopt and identify them in the following documents:
— product and process FMEA;
— control plan;
— inspection instructions and on-site operation instructions;
— process flow chart.
- F) feasibility of manufacturing
This requirement is similar to the review of product requirements, but the connotation is quality planning activities. Before a company signs a contract for a product (generally a new product), it must review the manufacturing feasibility of the product, including:
Is the product fully defined?
— does the engineering performance specification meet the written requirements?
Can the product be manufactured to the tolerance specified in the drawing?
— can the product be manufactured with the required CPK value?
Is there sufficient capacity to produce the product?
Is the quality and cost reasonable?
The project team is responsible for filling the evaluation results into the feasibility commitment form.
4.2 contract and order review the sales department shall organize the review of the contract and order draft according to the identified/confirmed requirements before accepting the contract.
4.2.1 scope of contract review
The company reviews the following contracts:
- A) draft contract;
- B) other requirements within the framework of the signed contract;
- C) external publicity materials or written commitments related to auto parts business formulated by the company.
4.2.2 all contracts within the scope of the review shall be reviewed to ensure that:
- A) requirements are clearly defined and documented;
- B) any contract or order requirements inconsistent with the tender have been resolved;
- C) the company has the ability to meet the requirements of the contract or order;
- D) the content of the contract must be accurate and legal.
4.2.3 content and method of review
- A) contract/order review: the sales manager shall review the draft contract item by item and other departments shall cooperate.
- B) review of external publicity materials or written commitments: original texts/printed samples shall be submitted to the management representative for review and approval by the general manager.
4.2.4 review records
After the completion of all kinds of review activities, personnel at all levels shall issue review opinions in the contract review record form, which shall be kept by the sales department. For telephone or verbal orders, the recorder confirms the order content with the customer.
4.3 contract execution
4.3.1 the sales department shall deliver the contract requirements in the following ways
- A) the auto parts business with special requirements shall be delivered to the technical department, which shall be responsible for translating the requirements related to the products into product specifications and service requirements, compiling the project quality plan or carrying out process development.
- B) regular and mature contracts/orders without special requirements shall be copied and directly sent to the production department.
4.3.2 personnel at all levels shall organize the implementation of the contract/order as required.
4.4 change of requirements related to products
4.4.1 the sales department shall organize the review of the above changes related to product requirements in accordance with the provisions of this procedure.
4.4.2 the sales department shall submit the revised information to the technical department and the production department in the form of the contract change notice to ensure that the revised information can be correctly delivered to the relevant personnel and be implemented.
4.5 customer communication
4.5.1 responsibilities and scope of customer communication
184.108.40.206 when organizing the contract review, the sales department shall timely communicate with customers on the performance and quality requirements of the products, as well as the contract implementation and changes.
220.127.116.11 the sales department shall introduce product information to customers, answer customers’ inquiries, including contract changes and record them.
18.104.22.168 technical department supervisors shall communicate with customers about the technology, quality and other information of auto parts.
4.5.2 communication with customers involves the following contents:
- A) product information, such as technical quality requirements, delivery requirements, etc.;
- B) inquiries (such as inquiries, quotations), the handling of contracts or agreements and their modifications;
- C) customer feedback, including customer complaints.
4.5.3 communication and implementation
- A) in the language or manner specified by the customer, such as cad data, edi, 8D reporting.
- B) each customer representative shall effectively implement all communication arrangements with customers.
- C) in the process of communication, changes and communication information related to contract/order and other requirements shall be recorded.
- D) the sales department shall investigate and deal with the customer complaints it has accepted, and effectively solve them, and make records in the on-site service work records.
5 relevant forms/records
- Contract review record form
- Site service record sheet
C order receiving registration form
- Contract registration form
- Contract change notice
- project quality plan
G. Group feasibility commitment table
Manage product delivery process to ensure on-time delivery.
Applicable to product delivery management.
3. Responsibility and authority
The sales department is responsible for the management of product delivery.
4.0 working procedure
4.0 process input: delivery plan.
4.1 the sales department shall determine the mode and time of product delivery according to the requirements of the order for product delivery, prepare the “shipping plan”, issue the “shipping notice”, and inform the product name (drawing number, quantity and receiving unit) of the product.
4.2 the salesman shall take delivery of the goods at the warehouse with the shipment notice, and the warehouse administrator shall record the flow direction of the batch number products.
4.3 the warehouse distributes products according to the shipment notice, and records the batch number of products;
4.4 the quality control department shall be responsible for providing the corresponding inspection and test records according to the product batch number. If electronic records are required, the quality control department shall send an email to the receiving unit on the same day.
4.5 after checking the goods, the salesman shall go to the quality control department to get the material sheet and test report of the batch products after checking the name and quantity. Material list and test report should go together with the product.
4.6 for nearby places, the salesman will deliver the goods by car and handle the goods acceptance procedures at the customer’s office.
4.7 for the long journey, the salesman shall handle the consignment/mail, and the salesman shall maintain the delivery certificate procedures, timely track the acceptance of the customer and accept the receipt in the normal response time of the customer.
4.8 after receiving the customer receipt, the salesman shall go through relevant procedures in the financial department in time.
4.9 the salesman shall track the acceptance and use of the customer, solve the problems raised by the customer in a timely manner, including the possible reasonable requirements of the customer.
4.10 in case of customer service requirements, the salesman shall provide relevant services. In case of need, the salesman shall contact relevant production or technical personnel, go to the customer for service, record the service contents and results, and fill in the on-site service record form, including the customer’s evaluation of the service.
4.11 salesman/resident representative shall track and record the delivery and acceptance of products and the use of customers in assembly. Report major nonconformities and customer complaints by phone in a timely manner.
5. Relevant documents/records
a. Shipping order
b. Certificate of delivery procedure/customer receipt
c. The delivery plan
Measure customer satisfaction to find improvement direction.
2.Applicable to the measurement of customer satisfaction.
3. Responsibility and authority
The sales department is responsible for the management of customer satisfaction.
4.0 process input: customer communication and information feedback, product quality and delivery certificate/record.
4.1 measurement and analysis of customer satisfaction
4.1.1 planning of satisfaction monitoring and measurement
Conduct regular customer satisfaction surveys.
A. survey cycle: quarterly.
B. Survey objects: covering 90% of the customers, responsible personnel of relevant units of customers under investigation.
C. Survey items: quality of the company’s products; Delivery status; Service status; Production interruption of customers caused by our products; Significant customer feedback on product quality or delivery issues, additional shipping costs, customer perception, etc.
D. Investigation department: sales department.
E. Survey methods: statistical survey methods were adopted.
F. The customer satisfaction survey shall take into account both the last customer satisfaction and dissatisfaction, as well as the actual production and operation status.
4.1.2 carry out investigation
22.214.171.124 the sales department shall organize a customer satisfaction survey every quarter.Survey customers who have contracts and/or business dealings with the company in the form of a customer satisfaction questionnaire. The main means of transmission are: fax, visit, mail, E-mail and please carry.
126.96.36.199 after the “customer satisfaction survey form” is issued, the sales department shall timely track, feedback and contact customers to fill in and reply to the status.
188.8.131.52 relevant units of the company shall organize and carry out an investigation on the actual operation status of the company:
A. The sales department shall make monthly statistics and analysis of delivery, service quality level, customer notification, and customer production interruption (including sales returns).
B. Monthly statistics and analysis of product quality level by quality control department.
C. The production department organizes each workshop to calculate the process capability and process capability index of the company’s important processes every month.
D. The financial department calculates the actual operating cost, excess freight and profit of the company every month.
E. Submit the above analysis results to the sales department.
4.1.3 summarize and analyze the satisfaction
The sales department shall organize relevant departments to analyze according to the results of customer satisfaction survey and the actual operation status of the company, and form a “customer satisfaction statistical analysis report”, which shall include the trend of customer satisfaction and the main aspects of customer dissatisfaction as well as the performance indicators and improvement measures.
4.2 collect customer feedback and provide after-sales service
4.2.1 collection and feedback of feedback information
A. After receiving customer feedback, the sales department shall timely provide feedback to the quality control department and other relevant departments with the “customer feedback information processing report”.
B. The sales department keeps a record of the accounts.
4.2.2 processing of feedback information
Deliver customer feedback from sales to quality control.
The quality control department shall organize relevant departments to study and formulate corrective measures, and propose service methods, which shall be implemented by relevant departments.
C. After the completion of the service, the service implementation unit shall feed back the service results to the sales department and quality control department.
4.2.3 realization of after-sales service
184.108.40.206 telephone service method: put the summary record of the result of telephone service on the “field service record”. If necessary, if the telephone cannot be said clearly or words need to be confirmed, the report shall be sent to the customer in the form of fax. The original copy of the fax shall be attached to the field service record.
220.127.116.11 on-site service method: after the end of on-site service, the entrusted on-site service personnel shall keep the service content in the form of “on-site service record”. If it needs to be confirmed by the customer, it must be signed by the customer representative. After returning to the company, the service personnel shall submit the “on-site service record” to the sales department for preservation and feedback to the quality control department.
4.2.4 provide guaranteed return and replacement services, and relevant expenses shall be included in the quality cost.
4.3 plan improvement measures
In view of the problems in the analysis results, the sales manager shall organize the relevant departments to make improvements, and supervise and promote the improvement process. Related corrective and verification work according to “improve control procedures”.
4.4 implementation of improvement measures
4.4.1 the sales department is responsible for improving service quality and delivery quality.
4.4.2 the technical department is responsible for the improvement of application development problems and product performance problems.
4.4.3 the quality control department is responsible for the improvement of product quality problems.
4.4.4 the workshop is responsible for the improvement of the process capability of the unit.
4.4.5 the financial department is responsible for the improvement of price issues.
4.5 submit for management review
All related units shall submit investigation report, investigation analysis report and implementation of improvement measures during the management review of the company.
5. Relevant documents/records:
a.Customer satisfaction questionnaire
b.Customer satisfaction statistics
c.Customer feedback information processing report
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Address: Luolong Industrial District, Luoyang City, Henan Province, China, 471000